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Coming dissertations at Uppsala university

Please note that the date and time given on these pages is the time of electronic publication, and not the date of the public defense. To find the time and venue of the public defense, please follow the link to DiVA of the thesis in question.
  • Mode och hushåll : Om formandet av kön och media i frihetstidens svenska små- och veckoskrifter

    Author: Agneta Helmius
    Publication date: 2022-06-13 10:34

    This thesis, Fashion and the household: The formation of media and gender in 18th Century Swedish periodicals and pamphlets, deals with the formation of media and gender in 18th Century Sweden using fashion and the household as themes of discussion and gender as an analytical category. The material used consists of periodicals, small prints and series of pamphlets published from the 1730s to the 1770s in Sweden, and one engraving showing five housewives beating a husband on his bare buttocks printed in 1755. According to both writers of that time and to earlier research these periodicals and pamphlets, printed in small editions and circulated mostly in the capital of Stockholm, meant a breakthrough for a new public discourse. 

    One aim is to study how gender was used, discussed and constructed in this new media. Another aim is to study how gender was used to create modern forward looking identities. Of particular interest in this new media is the debate on modernity and how it brought about new views on modern society including both gender relations and the construction of public and private spheres. The public discourse fostered a debate on the privatization of the household.

    The perspective chosen is meant to show how gender was used differently, on different levels by both male and female writers depending on purpose or agenda and sometimes in opposition to the described changes taking place. Gender could be used both benevolently and with hostility.

    By using gender as analytical category the public discourse studied in this thesis is decoded showing how both society and the public discourse, simultaneously, were gendered in new ways. It presents a debate of modernity on the threshold to modernity, and a debate on the exploitation of private vices and the privatization or marginalization of the household, later to be described as a division of private and public spheres.

  • Seismic imaging of volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits : From legacy to innovative surveys

    Author: George A. Donoso
    Publication date: 2022-06-10 14:47

    The volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits at the Neves-Corvo mine area, part of the Iberian Pyrite Belt in southern Portugal, were studied using seismic methods.  Three distinct reflection seismic datasets were used in this study: a 2D legacy data from 1996, an innovative 2019 surface and in-mine acquisition, and a 2011 3D seismic survey. The seismic data were processed with the main objective of improving the seismic signature of the volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits in the area by the use of modern and innovative seismic methods.

    The legacy dataset, acquired in 1996, was reprocess using today’s processing software. The Lombador massive sulphide was better imaged and a number of never-before-seen shallow but steeply dipping reflections were detected. In the 2019 seismic survey, 2D seismic profiles were acquired on the surface above the Lombador deposit, and four seismic profiles were deployed inside mine exploration tunnels at 650 m depth. Arguably, the first time a seismic acquisition survey of this size has been carried-out inside an active underground mine. The processing of the surface profiles was complemented by additional methods that indicate how the out-of-plane contribution of the Lombador deposit may not be detectable when employing 2D data only, showing the imaging potential of a small-scale survey implemented with innovative acquisition technologies. The 3D seismic data processing showed sensitivity to parameter selection for imaging. Processing results using pre-stack dip move-out and post-stack migration methods show moderate to steeply dipping reflections. Which can be correlated with known lithological contacts, some are interpreted to be originated from the Semblana and Lombador deposits. Despite the mixed signal-to-noise ratio the seismic volume reveals improved 3D seismic images of both shallow and deep structures, allowing to account for the deposit’s lateral extension beyond the capabilities of 2D seismic imaging alone. It was possible to distinguish strong diffraction patterns, interpreted as originating from faults and edges of the Lombador deposit, illustrating the usefulness of diffraction patterns for better interpretation of geological features in hard-rock environments. All of the aforesaid allows to conclude that an exploration programme solely based on 2D seismic data would have showed false-positive results in depth. This encourages the employment of 3D seismic methods, instead of 2D, in mineral exploration for accurate detection and targeting of VMS deposits. 

  • Achieving person-centred pain management for the patient with acute abdominal pain : Guided by the Fundamentals of Care framework

    Author: Therese Avallin
    Publication date: 2022-06-10 11:10

    The overall aim of this thesis is to explore how to achieve and measure person-centred pain management (PCPM) for the patient with acute abdominal pain (AAP) in acute surgical care. The Fundamentals of Care (FoC) framework guides all studies.

    The methods: In Study I, focused ethnography is used with 92h of participant observations (n=34) at the emergency department (n=1) and surgical wards (n=2), including 261 patient–provider interactions. In Study II, case study is used for secondary analysis of 20 observations from Study I. In Study III, a questionnaire is developed in a systematic process to measure PCPM, performed by combining; a validated questionnaire, theoretical and empirical evidence. The questionnaire is tested by question appraisal, theoretical experts (n=2), patients (n=5) and providers (n=5), and thereafter by patients (n=100) at surgical wards (n=4). In Study IV, a qualitative systematic review is performed with a synthesis by thematic analysis, to test and refine a model for PCPM from Study I. The synthesis includes 15 qualitative studies representing patients (n=495) and/or nurses (n=259) from n= 3 emergency departments and n=17 hospital wards in n=9 countries. The patients are ≥ 18 years old, with AAP (Studies I-IV), or acute pain from surgery (Study IV). The results confirms that the patient still suffer from unmanaged pain in acute surgical care, and presents actions on behalf of the patient and provider, and contextual factors including the organizational culture, to achieve and measure PCPM. The studies presents a model for PCPM from the patient perspective (Study I), patient-provider communications contributing to meeting fundamental care needs (Study II), an initially feasible and valid questionnaire to measure PCPM (Study III), and a tested and refined model for PCPM from the patient and nurse perspective (Study IV). 

    Conclusion: This thesis presents scientific evidence providing an in-depth understanding of what is important for successful pain management from the patient’s and nurses’ perspectives, how these parts are interconnected, and how they can be achieved and measured. The results also show the feasible role of communication in meeting the patient’s fundamental care needs. This evidence is suggested to be tested and evaluated in clinical practice to perform PCPM, relieving the patient from pain. 

  • Cracks in the Ivory Tower : Antibiotics Research and the Changes in Academia 1980-2015

    Author: Carl Björvang
    Publication date: 2022-06-09 14:15

    At the same time as resistance to antibiotics became an increasingly problematic health care concern around the world, major changes occurred in the condition scientists faced when conducting university-based research. This thesis aims to study these changes as they applied to antibacterial and bacteriological research, and how they influenced the researchers’ ability to make new scientific discoveries. Especially such discoveries that could be of critical importance for addressing the resistance problems of the era.

    Using interviews with researchers, funding data and political documents, this thesis has been able to confirm that findings regarding the global trend of changes in academic research from previous research also applied to the bacteriological research in Sweden in the late 20th and early 21st century. These changes included increased performance pressure, administrative burden, and concentration of funding to a few large research groups as well as decreased employment security and less time for senior researchers to be directly active in the scientific work. While there were many intertwined underlying factors for these developments, most of them could be traced back to the changes in funding model for academic science. Most crucially, research funding turned from being based on employment to being based on recurring applications to funding agencies.

    In conclusion, the changes in academic research conditions had major impacts on the ability of researchers to make new scientific discoveries. They incentivised doing safe, low-risk research with predictable outcomes, and producing many small, insubstantial publications. There were also some positive effects, such as a decrease in the impunity of senior researchers and a limitation on their ability to rest on their laurels. However, overall, this move away from taking chances and daring to research the truly unknown is likely to have decreased the ability of researchers to utilise their talents and follow-up on chance findings, decreasing their potential for discovery-making. Instead, it is likely that these changes within academia indirectly contributed to the antibacterial resistance problem by slowing down the rate of major breakthroughs in antibacterial treatments.

  • Decorating trees grown in urns

    Author: Colin Desmarais
    Publication date: 2022-06-09 10:18

    Random recursive trees are classic models of random trees. A random recursive tree is initiated with a single root vertex and constructed in steps, whereby at each step a vertex is added as the child of a vertex chosen uniformly at random in the tree. A preferential attachment tree is constructed in a similar manner, except the random choice of the vertex at each step is made proportional to its outdegree.

    The models studied in this thesis are generalizations of random recursive trees and preferential attachment trees. Hooking networks are constructed recursively, whereby a new graph called a block is attached at each step, instead of a single vertex. Bipolar networks are directed graphs recursively constructed by choosing an arc at random in the network and replacing it with a directed graph. Random recursive metric spaces are similar to hooking networks, but the blocks attached at each step are metric spaces. Finally, a broadcast induced colouring on a random recursive tree or preferential attachment tree is a random 2-colouring of the vertices as red or blue in the following way. The root vertex is coloured red or blue with equal probability, and every other vertex takes the colour of its parent with probability p and the other colour with probability 1-p.

    In Paper I, we prove normal limit laws for the degree distributions of hooking networks and bipolar networks. Paper II provides a normal limit law, under certain conditions, for the insertion depth in hooking networks; the distance from the initial starting block to the newly added block. In Paper III, a similar normal limit law is proved for the insertion depth in random recursive metric spaces. Broadcast induced colourings in random recursive trees and preferential attachment trees are studied in Paper IV, where we prove limit laws for the number of vertices of each colour, the number of clusters (maximal monochromatic subtrees) of each colour, as well as the number of leaves of each colour and the number of 2-coloured trees appearing in the fringe. We also prove limit laws for the size of the cluster containing the root vertex.

  • Lifestyle counselling in primary health care for patients with high cardiovascular risk : Aspects of a 1-year structured lifestyle programme promoting healthier lifestyle habits to reduce future risk of cardiovascular disease

    Author: Lena Lönnberg
    Publication date: 2022-06-09 09:31

    While the effects of lifestyle habits on hypertension or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well established, few lifestyle programmes in primary care directed towards patients with high cardiovascular risk have been evaluated.

    Aims To describe and elaborate on how participation in a 1-year lifestyle programme supported changes in lifestyle habits and altered the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as explore patients’ and community health nurses’ (CHNs’) experiences of lifestyle change and counselling.

    Methods The 1-year lifestyle programme consisted of five appointments with a CHN for patients diagnosed with hypertension, T2DM or impaired glucose tolerance (n = 448). Focuse was on lifestyle habits that were related to patients’ diagnosis. Different behaviour change techniques were used to support lifestyle changes. Blood sampling and anthropometrical measurements were obtained at baseline and 1-year follow-up. The design of Studies I and II was observational and based on data that were consecutively collected between 2009 and 2014, whereas Studies III and IV had a qualitative design. Qualitative content analyses were performed based on data from individual interviews with patients (n = 16) and a focus group interview of CHNs (n = 3).

    Results Study I: Favourable changes in physical activity, dietary habits and smoking were detected after participation in the programme. Study II: Significant improvements were demonstrated for all cardiovascular risk factors and the estimated 10-year CVD risk after participation in the programme. Study III: Patients’ experiences of lifestyle changes indicated that increased knowledge of lifestyle habits, gaining trust in oneself and support from others were important elements in the adoption of lifestyle changes. Study IV: The informants expressed that counselling should be based on a partnership, include goal setting and repeated measurements, and incorporate long-term support after the completion of the lifestyle programme.

    Conclusion This thesis adds to the knowledge on how lifestyle counselling can be designed and implemented in primary care. The findings show that patients with a new diagnosis of hypertension or T2DM are at high risk for future CVD and a structured lifestyle programme can contribute to improved lifestyle habits and a reduced 10-year CVD risk.

  • Computational Modeling, Parameterization, and Evaluation of the Spread of Diseases

    Author: Robin Marin
    Publication date: 2022-05-24 11:48

    Computer simulations play a vital role in the modeling of infectious diseases. Different modeling regimes fit specific purposes, from ordinary differential equations to probabilistic formulations. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, we have seen how the results from these computational models can come to dictate our daily lives and the importance of reliable results. This thesis aims to address the challenge of exploiting the increase in available computational power to build accurate models with well-understood uncertainties. The latter is essential when basing decisions on any model predictions.

    Data collection relevant to epidemiology is expanding, and methods to incorporate models in data fitting need to follow suit. This thesis applies the Bayesian framework connecting data with models in a probabilistic setting. We propose simulation-based inference methods that allow for the use of complex models otherwise excluded due to their intractable likelihoods. Our computational set-up exemplifies how modelers can deploy Bayesian inference in large-scale, real-world data environments.

    The thesis includes four papers relevant for modelers considering dynamic systems, approximate Bayesian inference, or epidemics. Paper I finds the approximate posterior of a complex chemical reaction network and estimates the prior and posterior uncertainties using the pathwise Fisher information matrix, thus framing our methodology in a fully synthetic setting. Paper II constructs a disease spread model for the spread of a verotoxigenic E. coli prevalent in the Swedish cattle population. The data includes a high-resolution transport network and actual bacterial-swab observations from selected farms. The results show that even if the data is sparse in space and time, it is still possible to recover a posterior that replicates the data and is viable for mitigation evaluations. Paper III studies a form of meta-models, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and how they approximate epidemiological models and enable broad analysis. We state an analytical limit of what is possible to learn from data subject to binary filters with confirming numerical examples. Finally, Paper IV finds a posterior model of the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden and the 21 regions using a Kalman filter approximation. The findings result in a probabilistic regional surveillance tool for an epidemic at a national scale with considerable cost-cutting potential independent of large-scale testing of individuals.

    In conclusion, the thesis examines how reasonably realistic and computationally expensive epidemic models can be adapted to data using a Bayesian framework without compromising model complexity and estimating uncertainties that further support decision-making.

  • Novel approaches using electrocardiographic imaging for early detection of ARVC in patients and relatives and symptoms preceding sudden death

    Author: Varvara Kommata
    Publication date: 2022-05-23 14:26

    Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited disease of the myocardium, predominantly affecting the right ventricle (RV). Arrhythmias are common among patients with the disease and Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) can occur even in early stages. 

    The overall purpose of this thesis was to investigate the effectiveness of new diagnostic methods in detecting early abnormalities in genetically predisposed individuals and to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis. 

    The analysis of body surface mapping (BSM) signals recorded using a 252-lead vest revealed abnormal repolarisation patterns in all ARVC patients, but also in 25% of family members who were carriers of the family pathogenic variant (M-carriers). The abnormal repolarization patterns preceded repolarization abnormalities on 12-leads electrocardiogram (ECG). Depolarization abnormalities were also detected by the analysis of body surface signals. The QRS dispersion calculated by the body surface signals was significantly higher among ARVC patients compared with controls. 20% of M-carriers presented also with a slightly elevated QRS dispersion. ECG based QRS dispersion could not adequately differentiate ARVC patients from controls. Thus, the higher resolution of the BSM system permitted the detection of repolarization and depolarization abnormalities even in early stages of the disease.

    The analysis of reconstructed epicardial signals using Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) revealed terminal ventricular epicardial activation (the last 20msecs) located only in parts of RV, as opposed to controls, where the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and cardiac base (both right and left ventricle) were activated last. The total ventricular activation time and the RV activation time were both longer in ARVC patients, whereas the area activated during the last 20 msecs was smaller. Similar pattern with delayed conduction in limited areas of the RV were also observed in 50% of the M-carriers. This subgroup presented also smaller area of terminal ventricular activation and longer RV activation time, but the total ventricular activation was normal. 

    Through nationwide registries, the first SCD cohort due to ARVC in Sweden was described. Cardiac related symptoms were common (68%) prior to death and 36% of cases had sought medical care the last six months prior to death. A family history of SCD was present in 45% of the cases.  The careful clinical evaluation of young individuals seeking with cardiac related symptoms and the evaluation of both medical and family history is crucial.

    In conclusion, new technologies, using multiple electrodes for the recording of body surface signals and the reconstruction of the epicardial signals have shown promising results in detecting early repolarization and depolarization abnormalities and could facilitate the early diagnosis in M-carriers.

  • Technology in Absentia : A New Materialist Study of Digital Disengagement

    Author: Cristina Ghita
    Publication date: 2022-05-23 10:18

    The rhetoric associated with society-wide digitalisation promises benefits such as increased quality of life, democracy, or sustainability, which point towards normative trajectories of increased automation and digitalisation of nearly all aspects of society. Meanwhile, there is evidence of a disenchantment with digital use, forming a movement that challenges the pervasiveness of digital artefacts such as the smartphone. This kind of scepticism towards digital technologies is currently informing and changing how we assume, understand, and conceptualise technology in our professional and private lives, leading to an emerging trend of volitionally reducing or postponing the use of digital devices – a practice often labelled as digital disengagement. In this dissertation the research lens is directed towards how the disengagement from ubiquitous digital devices unfolds and to what results. Thus, it investigates the productive potential of technology intentionally made absent, repositioning the traditional approach of articulating such absence as a deficit.

    Drawing on a new materialist perspective of technology use which combines assemblage theory with agential realism, this dissertation explores the search for meaningful technological encounters through a multi-sited ethnographic approach. More specifically, it combines autoethnography, a diary study, interviews, participatory observations, and netnography in which moments of disconnection are observed in order to understand experiences of digital disengagement at individual and collective levels. 

    Through this lens, the performativity, temporality, and productivity of digital disengagement are made visible and analysed. Results show that digital disengagement is not an insular practice, including in its composition a myriad of external components. Digitalisation is shown to be in direct dialogue with practices of digital disengagement through their mutual dichotomic logics. Further analysis of such dichotomies suggests new manners of engaging with technology in which digital use and non-use are entangled, resulting in a novel type of technology engagement called diffractive digital use

  • New and old materials for permanent magnets based on earth-abundant elements

    Author: Daniel Hedlund
    Publication date: 2022-05-23 09:20

    Electrical motors, which find use in e.g. electrical vehicles, require per-manent magnets to function. Comparing ferrite magnets and Nd-based magnets reveals a large difference in their price and performance. During the last decade, gap-magnets, with performance in between ferrites and Nd-based magnets have attracted considerable research interest world-wide due to the “rare-earth crisis”. During this crisis, the price of certain rare-earth elements experienced volatile changes. This thesis deals with materials that could be relevant as gap-magnets. The thesis starts with introducing key properties and constraints relevant for gap-magnets. In the thesis, four different systems were investigated. The four systems show that permanent magnets need to be understood and optimized on three distinct levels, the crystal level, the structural level, and the micro-structural level. They show how old and new materials can potentially be utilized as permanent magnets. Lastly, the thesis ends with an outlook that presents new ideas for finding new permanent magnets. The ideas presented in the outlook are ideas that were not treated in this thesis, and thus may represent new ways for further work in developing materials for gap-magnets. 

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